Syria After the Uprisings

Author: Joseph Daher

Publisher: Haymarket Books

Total Pages:

Syria has been at the center of world news since 2011, following the beginnings of a popular uprising in the country and its subsequent violent and murderous repression by the Assad regime. Eight years on, Joseph Daher analyzes the resilience of the regime and the failings of the uprising, while also taking a closer look at the counter revolutionary processes that have been undermining the uprising from without and within. Joseph Daher is the author of Hezbollah: The Political Economy of the Party of God, and founder of the blog Syria Freedom Forever.

The War for Syria

Author: Raymond Hinnebusch

Publisher: Routledge

Total Pages: 326

Examining the international dimensions of the Syrian conflict, this book studies external factors relating to the Uprising. It explores the involvement of outside powers and the events’ impact both on regional and international level. Syria was widely perceived to be essential to the regional power balance, hence it was a valued prize to be fought over. The book examines the impact of global and regional powers in propelling the conflict in Syria; looks at the motives and strategies of the key regional and international actors (Hizbollah, Palestinians, Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, US, Russia, EU); and analyses the impact of the Syrian conflict on key relations between regional states (Turkey-Syria, Turkey-Iran, Iraq-Syria). Finally, several chapters treat the impact on Syria of international sanctions and the "Responsibility to Protect" doctrine. This book follows on to The Syrian Uprising: Domestic Origins and Early Trajectory, edited by Raymond Hinnebusch and Omar Imady (2018). Subsequent volumes will examine the later evolution of the conflict. Taking an innovative and interdisciplinary approach that seeks to capture the full complexity of the phenomenon, this book contributes significantly to our understanding of the Syrian conflict and will therefore be a valuable resource for anyone studying Middle Eastern Politics.

After the Arab Uprisings

Author: Raymond Hinnebusch

Publisher: Routledge

Total Pages: 184

The Arab Uprisings that began in 2010 removed four presidents and made more mobilized mass publics an increased factor in the politics of regional states. The main initial problematic of the Arab Uprising was how to translate mass protest into democratization and ultimately democratic consolidation; yet four years later, there was little democratization. This book explores various aspects of this question while, comparing outcomes in three states, Egypt, Syria and Tunisia. The introduction by Raymond Hinnebusch explores how far different starting points —the features of the regime and of the uprising--explain these pathways. Morten Valbjørn then considers the consequences of the Arab uprisings for the credibility of rival democratization and post-democratization paradigms. Vincent Durac examines the efficacy of anti-system social movements in challenging regimes but their inability to steer a democratic transition. Joshua Stacher examines the increased violence deployed by more conercive authoritarian regimes to prevent such a transition. Frede ́ric Volpi and Ewan Stein examine the conseuences of the relative balance between different kinds of Islamists for outcomes. James Allison then examines the impact of workers’ movements on democratic potentials. Adham Saouli assesses the mobilization of communal identities by ruling elites and counter-elites. Raymond Hinnebusch focuses on the negative impact on democratization of competitive external interference inside the uprising states. In Hinnebusch’s conclusion, the combined effects of the agency of these forces and the political, cultural, and economic contexts in which they operate are summarized. This book was previously published as a special issue of Democratization.

A Tale of Four Worlds

Author: David Ottaway

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

Total Pages: 238

About the separate trajectories of the Levant, the Gulf, Egypt and the Maghreb after the Arab Spring uprisings

The New Middle East

Author: James L. Gelvin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Total Pages: 200

December 17, 2016 marked the sixth anniversary of the outbreak of the Arab uprisings. In the six years since Muhammad Bouazizi set himself on fire in Tunisia, igniting the uprisings which continue today, the entire Middle East landscape has changed in ways that were unimaginable before. In spite of the early hype about the "Arab Spring" and the prominence observers gave to calls for the downfall of regimes and an end to their abuses, most of the protests and uprisings born of Bouazizi's self-immolation have had disastrous results across the whole Middle East. While the old powers reasserted their control with violence in Egypt and Bahrain, Libya, Yemen, and Syria have virtually ceased to exist as states, torn apart by civil wars. In other states-Morocco and Algeria-the forces of reaction were able to maintain their hold on power, while in the "hybrid democracies"-Lebanon, Palestine, and Iraq-protests against government inefficiency, corruption, and arrogance have done little to bring about the sort of changes protesters have demanded. Simultaneously, ISIS, along with other jihadi groups (al-Qaeda, al-Qaeda affiliates and wannabes, Ansar al-Shariahs, etc.) have thrived in an environment marked by state breakdown. This book explains these changes, outlining the social, political, and economic contours of what some have termed "the new Middle East." One of the leading scholars of modern Middle Eastern history, James L. Gelvin lucidly distills the political and economic reasons behind the dramatic news that come every day from Syria and the rest of the Middle East. He shows how and why bad governance, stagnant economies, poor healthcare, climate change, population growth, refugee crisis, food and water insecurity, and war increasingly threaten human security in the region.

Russia's Resurgence in Syria

Author: Lubna Safey Eldin Ahmed Sadek


Total Pages: 104

Abstract: After the end of the first Cold War, scholars agreed that the United States became the dominant power in the Middle East. US hegemony created a certain degree of regional stability; titled by some as the “Pax Americana”. However, that stability has ended after the uprisings referred to as the Arab spring. This has been particularly evident since the beginning of Syrian civil war. The US has tried to influence events in Syria but has failed. In contrast, Russia has been actively intervening since the beginning of Syrian civil war; first diplomatically and then military. In this paper I argue that Russia’s intervention reflects the decline of US power in the region. Russia is using the Syrian civil war as an opportunity to regain its influence in the Middle East and to contain US impact. I will demonstrate this by comparing and analyzing Russian and US interventions in Syria between 2011 and 2015.

Can sectarianism explain the conflict in Syria?

Author: Rebekka Schliep

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

Total Pages: 15

Essay from the year 2017 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Near East, Near Orient, grade: 69/100, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, course: Political Society of the Middle East, language: English, abstract: In mid-March 2011, protests against arbitrary leadership and for democratic institutions took place in Syria's major cities. The Syrian regime has responded brutally and the dynamics have since been developing into an ongoing armed conflict. Soon counting its sixth year, the Syrian conflict has been described as sectarian in character. Other scholars have criticized the usage of this term and the concept behind it in this particular context. Overall, this paper will argue that the concept of "sectarianism" does help to explain the current conflict in Syria, while listing and explaining the areas in which the concept helps, as well as stressing the dangers implied when using the term and which analyses have to accompany the usage of the concept, i.e. how the concept does not help to explain the conflict. For this purpose, a historical perspective will be avoided in order to account for the modernity of the involvement of sectarianism in Syrian politics. The author attempts to put the concept into its modern context. Main time frames and features of the conflict outlined in the following are regarded as critical in the sectarianization of the political sphere, and therefore in the development of the conflict. This includes Hafez al-Assad's coup to power, and the strategies employed by his regime before and after the uprisings. In particular, the building of a sectarian narrative and how it serves to supply resources to the regime will be described. Lastly, this paper will outline the involvement of sectarianism in international as well as extremist participation in the conflict. Taking all these factors into account, the main argument of this paper is that non-doctrinal sectarianism is involved in the conflict and needs to be taken into account when attempting an explanation of the conflict. However, it will also argue that sectarianism does not serve to superficially explain the conflict as an outbreak of age-old hatreds between Sunni and Shii Muslims, and that, most importantly, many more fault lines, additional to sect, are involved. These arguments lead to a conclusion that an explanation of the conflict will involve the concept of "sectarianism", but most importantly needs to go beyond simple binaries and has to include the multi-dimensionality, heterogeneity, and complexity of the political set-up before the uprisings, during the uprisings, as well as during the conflict up to this day.

US Hard Power in the Arab World

Author: Layla Saleh

Publisher: Routledge

Total Pages: 192

Neither stability nor change in the post-colonial Arab world can be fully understood without considering the international context, and American Foreign policy in particular. However, the exact nature of America’s presence in the Arab world, and the scope and modes of its influence, all appear to have reached a crossroads since the Arab uprisings. ‘US Hard Power in the Arab World’ traces the US’s "power of persuasion" in the Arab Middle East from the onset of the War on Terror in 2001 through to the Arab Spring. With a particular focus on Syria, the book explores the limits of an American "smart power" amid the emergence of a growing indigenous "soft power" whose ire is directed not only at Assad’s regime, but also at the violence perpetrated or enabled by the international community, headed by the US. It is argued that the blurring of the two forms of "soft" and "hard" American power has tarnished the credibility of US policies geared to win hearts and minds in the Arab world. ‘US Hard Power in the Arab World’ narrates the contests between attraction and intimidation, public diplomacy and military occupation, elites and publics, seduction and resistance. Drawing upon a multitude of primary sources, including personal interviews with Syrian activists and opposition figures, this book will be a valuable resource for students and scholars of Middle East Politics, as well as those concerned with American Foreign Policy and the Arab Spring.


Author: Samer N. Abboud

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

Total Pages: 304

With more than 500,000 people killed and at least half the population displaced, Syria’s conflict is the most deadly of the twenty-first century. Russia’s decision to join the war has broken the long military and political stalemate but it looks unlikely to deliver any of the core demands that spawned the original uprising against the Ba’athist regime. In this fully revised second edition of his acclaimed text, Samer Abboud provides an in-depth analysis of Syria’s descent into civil war, the subsequent stalemate, and the consequences of Russian military involvement after 2015. He unravels the complex and multi-layered drivers of the conflict and demonstrates how rebel fragmentation, sustained regime violence, international actors, and the emergence of competing centers of power tore Syria apart in wholly irreversible ways. A resolution to the Syrian catastrophe seems to have emerged in the aftermath of Russia’s intervention, but, as Abboud argues, this “authoritarian peace” contains the seeds of continued and future conflict in Syria. While the Assad regime has so far survived, the instability, violence, and insecurity that continue to shape everyday life for the Syrian people portend an uncertain future that will have repercussions on the wider Middle East for years to come.